After 1450, the old ideal that Europe constituted a unified Christendom was weakened by the rise of sovereign states. Vernacular literature was further popularized in Britain in the Kingdom of Wessex by Alfred the Great(r. 871-899 CE) in an attempt to encourage widespread literacy, and other nations then followed suit. Industrialization generated unprecedented levels of material prosperity for some Europeans, particularly during the Second Industrial Revolution (1850–1914), when an outburst of new technologies ushered Europe into modern mass society. Most of the stories simply had stock characters, similar to the, The expansion meant progress and it implemented the idea of progress into the minds of the new people. C LIT 350 Themes in World Literature: Parents and Children (5) VLPA World literature, from the Renaissance to modern times, based upon the theme of "parents and children." Wealth from commerce supported, in turn, the growth of industrial capitalism in subsequent centuries. Lattimore. Write. He is recognized for his contributions to the genre of European magical realism, which was mostly evident in his 1959 novel, The Tin Drum. London: Longman, 1980. The love lyric has had a similarly heterogeneous background. Thesis examples on European Literature. The motivations for these enterprises were complex and have been the subject of much historical debate. According to Lionel Trilling, since the 16th century one of the most important themes in European literature is Sincerity, and later Authenticity. Eds. In the centuries after 1450, Europe first entered and then gradually came to dominate a global commercial network. New commercial techniques and goods provided Europeans with an improved diet and standard of living. The Complete Greek Tragedies. These actions often led to resistance in colonial areas. Yet, this critique of colonialism did not have an immediate effect, given that the 19th century proved to be a period of empire building. Beginning in the 19th century and accelerating in the 20th, European artists and intellectuals, along with a portion of the educated public, rejected absolute paradigms (whether idealist or scientific), replacing them with relative and subjective ones, as exemplified by existential philosophy, modern art, and postmodernist ideas and culture. Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth . ... Read more. An important strand of Enlightenment thought — the belief in citizenship, popular sovereignty, equality, and liberty — promoted by the American and French Revolutions also contributed to the ideology of the abolitionist movements, and European states abolished the slave trade in the early 19th century. Soviet Russia and its post–World War II satellites represented one path, while nations in western and central Europe modified laissez-faire capitalism with Keynesian budget and tax policies and an expanding welfare state. Driven by the needs of an industrial economy and nationalism, Europeans expanded their territorial control in Asia and Africa through warfare, the seizure of property, and, in some cases, immigration. As a result, mercantilism promoted commercial competition and warfare overseas. Secondly, the role that various policies of various governments played in influencing the international expansion strategies of both McDonald's and Wal-Mart will. European literature in the 18th century. Renaissance literature refers to European literature that was influenced by the intellectual and cultural tendencies of the Renaissance. 2020. From the 16th to the 19th centuries, the transatlantic slave trade became a central feature of the world economy, and millions of Africans were transported via the notorious “Middle Passage” to labor on plantations in the Americas. Beginning in the 19th century, new theories called into question the supremacy of reason and the possibility of finding objective truth in favor of subjective interpretations of reality and the importance of non-rational forces. Peasants left the countryside to work in the new factories, giving up lives as tenants on landlords' estates for wage labor. While most early modern Europeans continued to rely on religious authority and ancient texts for their knowledge of the world and as a standard of value, an increasing number argued that direct inquiry (philosophical and scientific) was the principal way to formulate truths and representations of reality. At the completion of this topic, the students must be able to: 1. Among Roman authors an elevated Stoicism stressing the sense of duty is common to many, from Naevius, Ennius, and Cato to Virgil, Horace, and Seneca. David Grene and Richard Lattimore. European literature includes literature in many languages; among the most important of the modern written works are those in English, Spanish, French, Dutch, Polish, Ukrainian, German, Italian, Modern Greek, Czech, Russian, Bosnian, Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Finnish and Irish. Under the influence of the French and Industrial Revolutions, intellectuals and activists attempted to employ a similarly “scientific” approach to the questions of political, social, and economic reform, resulting in the development of such ideologies as conservatism, liberalism, nationalism, socialism, and Marxism. This was the same formula for most literature, art, and political ideas. Understand the concept of European literature; 2. Early modern society was divided into the three estates: clergy, nobility, and commoners, which included merchants, townspeople, as well as the overwhelming majority, the peasantry. Learn. Web.21 December. contemplated an individual's relationship with his or her, Sixteen Illustrate the Major Theme of This, Historians Discuss Major Themes Dealing Vast Variety, Turkish Literature Compare Shahnameh With, Sixteen Illustrate The Major Theme Of This, Major Themes in European Literature Term Paper. Literary periods are spans of time for literature that shares intellectual, linguistic, religious, and artistic influences. * How and why did Europeans come to rely on the scientific method and reason in place of traditional authorities? Thus, for example, there are a few novels and chronicles that __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________. The French Revolution formally ended the division of society into three estates and continued to challenge traditional society throughout the 19th century, though remnants of the old order persisted into the 20th century. The ThemeTracker below shows where, and to what degree, the theme of The European Old World vs. the American New World appears in each chapter of The Portrait of a Lady. Gathering resources to create a new household often required young adults to work and save for a period of years, and a late age of marriage for commoners (the European family pattern) tended to limit demographic growth. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1991. pp. "Major Themes In European Literature" (2013, January 10) Retrieved December 21, 2020, from, "Major Themes In European Literature" 10 January 2013. * Why have Europeans sought contact and interaction with other parts of the world? -. INTERACTION OF EUROPE AND THE WORLD (INT) Motivated … Within Europe, exposure to new peoples and cultures influenced art and literature, and spurred on efforts to find a scientific basis for “racial” difference. On the other hand, fascist regimes re-emphasized a domestic role for women and created states based on a mythical racial identity. Those in the fine arts and literature both applied and commented on these methods in their depictions of European life during this period of rapid change. Da Vinci questioned the prevailing faith in the written word of the bible and instead sought knowledge of nature in nature. (Renaissance 2010). Besides a general overview on African art, Cook conducts close readings of fiction and drama by Cyprian Ekwensi, Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o, Wole Soyinka, and Peter Palangyo. As Europeans expanded overseas, the theaters of European warfare expanded as well. With their American colonies and the global reach of their seafarers, Europeans helped to create a truly global trading system, introducing new foods (such as tomatoes, potatoes, peppers, and corn) that changed the food cultures of China, India, and Europe. Born in 1927, a central theme in Grass’ writing was the question of what it meant to be German after Nazism took hold of the country. African Literature is replete with themes of; African Culture, Conflict of Culture, Religion, Colonialism, and Modernism and the like. The social problems in Europe during this time caused some of the revolts, factoring in to each rebellion regardless. Large-scale production required capital investment, which led to the development of capitalism, justified by Adam Smith through the concept of the “invisible hand of the marketplace.” The growth of large-scale agriculture and factories changed social and economic relations. Major Themes in American Literature. The tone of literature shifted after years of grueling WWI combat. A human ideal is to be seen in the savage satire of Juvenal and in Anacreon’s songs of love and wine, as … Market demands generated the increasingly mechanized production of goods through the technology of the Industrial Revolution. Themes / Gender equality themes. Sophocles. European literature refers to the literature of Europe. what is romanticism, in the european literary tradition literature (this discussion is in line with at least three literary giants).. also discussed john keats “ode to nightingale” as a prototype of the european literature within the romantic age. David Grene and Richard Spell. The Protestant Reformation placed new emphasis on the individual’s direct relationship to God and the role of women in the family as mothers and assistants in religious instruction and schooling, while excluding them from clerical roles. Humanistic Conception Towards the 18th Century European spirit of cosmopolitism which is encouraged by humanists, as heirs of Latin literary artistic and philosophical heritage, reflects in works of authors in the 18th century: Voltaire, Russo, and above all Goethe. In Praise of Antiheroes: Figures and Themes in Modern European Literature, 1830-1980 1st Edition by Victor Brombert (Author) 5.0 out of 5 stars 1 rating Literary modernism, or modernist literature, originated in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, mainly in Europe and North America, and is characterized by a self-conscious break with traditional ways of writing, in both poetry and prose fiction.Modernists experimented with literary form and expression, as exemplified by Ezra Pound's maxim to "Make it new." Test. The military revolution of the early modern period forced states to find new and better sources of revenue, and it spurred the expansion of state control over political and economic functions. Building off the voyages of exploration and colonization, the Commercial Revolution of the 17th and 18th centuries involved a wide range of new financial and economic practices — such as joint-stock companies, widely capitalized banks, and triangular trade — all of which supported an emerging money economy. In Africa, they also established themselves on the coasts, trading with the indigenous populations of the interior. If anyone strayed from this common structure it was a big deal and usually put down as soon as it began. Antigone. Oedipus Rex. . As Thomas Jefferson noted, the permanent moving forward of the boundaries and the idea of growth and multiplication enhanced the feeling of unfailing progress: "However our present interests may restrain us within our limits, it is impossible not to look forward to distant times, when our rapid multiplication will expand itself. African Literature: A Critical Overview. Demographic growth spurred social change in the 18th century. The revolutionary emphasis on liberty galvanized many excluded groups to take an active role in politics, and the language of natural rights spurred the development of movements of equality, such as feminism and the end of feudalism and serfdom. It created financial markets that periodically crashed, putting people dependent on wages out of work and wiping out investors’ capital. Historians discuss major themes dealing vast variety materials events encounter studying history.Three themes E-mail Citation » This book is an exploration of trends in African literature and its European legacies. Appreciate the influence of European literature today. 2nd Edition. In the late 19th century, the scale and pace of conquest intensified because of asymmetries in military technology, communications, and national rivalries among the Great Powers. Social values and communal norms were sanctified by religion. 10-76. Selections drawn from European, English, and American literature, not limited to period and genre. European literature of the 18th century refers to literature (poetry, drama, satire, and novels) produced in Europe during this period. Race, class and gender were highly important factors during colonial life in the country that would become the United States of America. The results of this intellectual movement were impressive, producing a new understanding of the universe (often designated as Newtonian mechanics) and systems to organize and advance the growing body of knowledge of plants, animals, and minerals. European Literature 1. In the Americas, they created colonies and imposed their religious, social, and political institutions on the native peoples. Consumerism, always an important factor in economic growth, took on even more importance in the second half of the 20th century, although not without criticism. With the advent of the Reformation, new Protestant denominations contested with the Catholic Church and with each other to establish new religious practices and social values. In many ways, the very founding of this country was all about these three separate themes that became increasingly difficult to distinguish from one another once colonial life truly began in earnest. In physics, quantum mechanics and Einstein’s theories of relativity, which took the observer into account, challenged Newtonian mechanics, and, in psychology, Freud emphasized the importance of irrational drives in human behavior.
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